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Sailcloth Any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric, usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. that is used for sails and apparel (i.e. bottomweight sportswear).
Sanforized Registered trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co. for fabrics processed by machine so that residual shrinkage will not exceed 1% in either direction (according to the U.S.?s standard wash test CCC-T-191a),, despite repeated washings.
Saran Fiber A manufactured fiber which has an excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering, and is used in lawn furniture, upholstery, and carpets.
Sateen Fabric A fabric made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Sateen fabrics are often used for draperies and upholstery.
Sateen Weave A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns.
Satin Fabric A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and antique satin.
Satin Weave A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over filling yarns.
Saxony Originally a high grade coating fabric made from Saxony merino wool raised in Germany.
Schiffli Embroidery Originated in Switzerland, the word, Schiffli, means "boat", identifiable with the boat-shaped shuttle used in the frame. The lace effect is made by embroidering the motifs on a net ground.
Seam (book/booking) The raw edge hem done on a blindstitch machine, usually sewn in the side ans back seam outlets, and on the bottom turn-up.
Seam (french) A closure between two pieces of material, made by stitching,turning, and restitching, so as to conceal all raw edges.
Seam (open gorge) Both the collar and the facing are turned under, basted, and then the seam is felled (edges folded together) from the outside.
Seam (raised) A seam resulting after two pieces of fabric have been joined; one piece is folded back, and a second row of stitching is placed adjacent to the folded edge.
Seamless Knitting A unique process of circular knitting, done on either Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps of sutting and sewing.
Seamless Technology This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (See Seamless Knitting), or "welding/bonding technology", which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing threads. (See welding.)
Seat The circumference of a pant, measured perpendicular to the fly opening and from the base of the fly.
Seersucker A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and informal suits.
Self-goods When the same material is used as a pocket lining, or in a waistband, collar and fly construction. Also called shell.
Selvage or Selvedge - The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.
Serge A fabric with a smooth hand that is created by a two-up, two-down twill weave.
Serging An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of a fabric to prevent raveling.
Shantung A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.
Sharkskin A hard-finished, low lustered, medium-weight fabric in a twill-weave construction. It is most commonly found in men's worsted suitings; however, it can also be found in a plain-weave construction of acetate, triacetate, and rayon for women's sportswear.
Shell A fabric from which the garment is made.
Shuttle The boat-like devise on weaving machines, which carries the filling yarn wound on the bobbin. The shuttle moves from the shuttle box on one side of the loom, through the shed, and onto the shuttle box at the other side of the loom.
Side Opening An opening created by the facing tacked onto the swing pockets. It allows the wearer access to his trouser pockets. Typically found on coveralls.
Silk A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected from cultivated worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, primarily China.
Singeing Process of burning off protruding fibers from fabrics to give the fabric a smooth surface.
Sisal A strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies, Central America, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.
Sizing The application of a size mixture to warp yarn. The purpose of this is to make the yarn smoother and stronger to withstand the strain of weaving, to provide an acceptable hand in the woven gray goods, and to increase fabric weight.
Sleeve Length The sleeves measured from the center of the neckline in the back to the end of the sleeve or cuff.
Sleeve Tacking Stitches which attach the sleeve to the lining along the sleeve inseams and elbow seams.
Sleeve Vent A finished slit or opening in the sleeve. Vents are usually secured by snaps or buttons at the base of the cuff.
Sliver A continuous bundle of loosely assembled untwisted fibers. These are fibers that are drawn from the card by the drawing frames, and are eventually twisted into a yarn during the sliver knitting process.
Sliver Knitting A type of circular knitting in which a high pile fabric is knitted by the drawing-in of the sliver by the knitting needles.
Smart Textiles Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal, chemical, magnetic and other sources.
Soft Shell Soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric. Stretch wovens with a DWR treatment.
Soil Release A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease of soil removal.
Solution-dyed A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most destructive agents.
Spacer Fabric Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3D appearance.
Spandex Fiber A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length.
SPF (Sun Protection Factor) SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for SPF is done by using a living organism or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.
Spinneret A metal nozzle type device with very fine holes used in the spinning process of manufactured fibers. The spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form continuous filament fibers. The holes in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various denier.
Spinning This final operation in the production of a natural yarn, consists of of the drawing, twisting, and the winding of the newly spun yarn onto a device such as a bobbin, spindle, cop, tube, cheese, etc. In manufactured fibers, the spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, a heated air chamber, or a cooling area in order to form a continuous filament or tow.
Sponging A pre-shrinkage process which involves the dampening with a sponge to woolen and worsted fabrics. The process is accomplished by rolling in moist muslin, or by steaming. This procedure is performed at the fabric mill prior to cutting to insure against a contraction of the material in the garment.
Spot Weave A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or Jacquard attachment.
Spun Yarn A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used for weaving or knitting fabrics.
Stain Repellent The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.
Stain Resistance - A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.
Staple Fibers Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.
Stay A piece of fabric used to hold another piece of fabric in place, or to add strength to a seam or tack.
Stitch (Backstitch) Used at the beginning and end of stitching to reinforce and prevent raveling. Also called backtack or stay-stitch.
Stitch (Baste) A stitching which holds the fabric in place until permanent stitching has been completed.
Stitch (Blind) A stich that is not visible on one side of the fabric.
Stitch (Chain/Class 100) - A stitch formed with one or more needle threads, the look=ps of which are passed through the material and through the loops of the preceding threads.
Stitch (Contrasting) - When the stitching thread contrasts the garment color.
Stitch (Dbl. lock/class 400) A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interlace each other. The loops of needle thread are passed through the material where they are secured by looper threads; no bobbins used. This stitching ravels in one direction.
Stitch (Dbl. lock/class 600) Multi-needle stitches that provide the elasticity necessary for knits.
Stitch (hand/class 200) A stitch formed by hand with one or more needles---one thread per needle passing in and out of the material.
Stitch (Lock/class 300) A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interface each other. The loops of needle threads are passed through the material where they are secured by bobbin threads.
Stitch (overedge/class 500) A stitch formed with one or more groups of threads at least one of which passes around the edge of the material.
Stitch (safety) A combination chain-stitch and overedge stitch made simultaneously on the same sewing machine.
Stitch (Top) A second row of stitching close to the edge of a seam, after two or more pieces of fabric have been sewed together and turned to bury the raw seam margin side.
Stitch (Zig-zag) A stitch made on a sewing machine in which the needle bar comes down alternately on the right and left side of an imaginary center line. Also refers to the type of machine producing this stitch.
Storm Shell Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.
Stretch Yarns Continuous filament synthetic yarns that have been altered through special treatments or modification to give them elasticity. Techniques include: twisting and untwisting, use of air jets, stuffer boxes, knife blades, crimping, heat setting, curling, steaming, or looping. Use of these yarns gives fabrics a degree of elasticity and comfort.
Substrate Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.
Super Light Weight Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight. These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.
Surah A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.

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