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Calendering A process for finishing fabrics in which such special effects as high luster, glazing, embossing, and moiré are produced.
Calico A tightly-woven cotton type fabric with an all-over print, usually a small floral pattern on a contrasting background color. Common end-uses include dresses, aprons, and quilts.
Camel's Hair A natural fiber obtained from the hair of the Bactrian camel, a two-humped pack-carrying species. The fiber is used primarily in coats, sweaters, and suits.
Canvas Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to the heavier, coarser constructions.
Capillary Action A process by which liquids are drawn through the fabric and into pores found between fibers and yarns.
Carding A process which eliminates fibers too short for inclusion in the spun yarn. The process also removes dirt and foreign matter still remaining in the fiber mass, and arranges the fibers into a very thin layer.
Cashmere - A luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the Kashmir goat of Tibet, Mongolia, China, Iran, Iraq, and India. Most commonly used in sweaters, shawls, suits, coats, and dresses.
Cellulose A material derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Cellulose is used in the production of many vegetable fibers, as well as being the major raw material component used in the production of the manufactured fibers of acetate, rayon, and triacetate.
Challis A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
Chambray A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns
Chenille 1. A specialty yarn, characterized by a pile protruding on all sides, resembling a caterpillar. The yarn is produced by first weaving a fabric with a cotton or linen warp and a silk, wool, rayon, or cotton filling. The warp yarns are taped in groups of tightly woven filling yarns, which have been beaten in very closely. After weaving, the fabric is cut into strips between the yarn groups. Each cutting produces a continuous chenille yarn, which is then twisted, creating the chenille yarn, and giving the pile appearance on all sides of the yarn. The chenille yarn is used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs. 2. A fabric woven from the chenille yarn.
Chiffon A plain woven lightweight, extremely sheer, airy, and soft silk fabric, containing highly twisted filament yarns. The fabric, used mainly in evening dresses and scarves, can also be made from rayon and other manufactured fibers.
Chino Classic all-cotton "Army twill" fabric made of combed two-ply yarns. Usually vat dyed, mercerized, and given a compressive shrinkage finish. Used traditionally for army uniforms, chino is now finding popularity sportswear and work clothes.
Chintz Glazed plain weave cotton fabric with a tioghtly spun fine warp and a coarser slack twist filling, often printed with brightly colored flowers or stripes. Named from Hindu word meaning spotted. Several types of glazes are used in the finishing process. Some glazes wash out in laundering, but others such as resin finishes are permanent. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne. Chintz end-uses include draperies, slipcovers, skirts, and summer dresses, and shirts.
Chintz A plain-weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a polished look. Usually made of cotton, this fabric is most commonly used in blouses, dresses, draperies, and slipcovers.
Chlorinated Wool Wool in the fiber, yarn, or fabric form which are treated chemically to decrease felting shrinkage and increase ability to take dyes.
Circular Knit Weft knit fabric made on a circular needle-bed knitting machine, which produces fabric in tubular form. Common types include single or double knits. Seamless hosiery are also made on a circular knitting machine. Although allowances are made on the machine for knitting the welt and foot. See Knitting (Circular).
Cleaning Hand operation in which the basting threads are removed from the garment; usually done prior to the final pressing.
Clo Value A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation required to produce the necessary heat to keep an individual comfortable at 21 degrees Centigrade with air movement at .1 m/s. One clo is about equal to the insulation value of typical indoor clothing.
Closures Items used to close openings in apparel and other consumer textile products, i.e. buttons, buckles, hook and eye, snaps and zippers.
Coated Fabrics Fabrics that have been coated with a lacquer, varnish, rubber, plastic resin of polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene, or other substance to make them longer lasting or impervious to water or other liquids.
Collar Two or more thicknesses of fabric attached to the neckhole opening to provide a firm and neat-appearing finish.
Collar (Banded) The visible or panel portion of the collar is cut separately and attached to the neckband portion. This is normal dress shirt construction.
Collar (convertible) The panel or visible portion of the collar and the neckband portion are cut as one piece, but folded once along the length to produce the appearance of a banded collar.
Collar (Lined) A collar made by placing a piece of interlining between the two pieces of body fabric.
Collar (one piece) A collar constructed from a single piece of fabric with the center fold forming the outer edge.
Collar (padding) Attaching the under-collar to canvas with several rows of blindstitching.
Collar (sandwich) A collar which has the top-collar inserted between the canvas and the under-collar.
Collar (topstitched) A collar with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Collar (two-piece) A collar formed by joining two identical pieces, inverting and sometimes topstitching along the folded edges.
Color Abrasion Color changes in localized areas of a garment due to differential wear, such as the knees of blue jeans. Often evident in cross-dye shades of blends where durable press treatments are applied. Color abrasion is often called "frosting".
Colorfastness A term used to describe a dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight, and other environmental conditions.
Combing The combing process is an additional step beyond carding. In this process the fibers are arranged in a highly parallel form, and additional short fibers are removed, producing high quality yarns with excellent strength, fineness, and uniformity.
Comfort Stretch The term given to the freedom of movement experienced in the wearing of a garment that contains spandex, or has stretch engineered into a yarn through mechanical stretch construction.
Commercial Standards "Recorded voluntary standards of the trade." The U.S. Bureau of Standards issues Commercial Standards which are not laws, but are important as accepted voluntary benchmarks of performance and quality by the industry. These standards are usually referred to by number, and spell out test procedures and minimum performance guidelines.
Composite Fabric An engineered fabric made from two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as fiberglass, Kevlar®, or carbon fiber that gives the material its tensile strength, while another component (often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy that binds the fibers together.
Compression Fabric A high tenacity stretch fabric which, when in a close fitting garment, provides muscles with a firm compression fit that lessons vibrations, reduces fatigue, and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a moisture transfer environment.
Compression Stretch The name given to the expansive stretch that is created by the spandex fibers used in the development of a compression fabric.
Continuous Cure A method of curing durable press garments which uses a moving conveyor system to carry garments into and out of the curing oven. Also known as continuous oven.
Continuous Filament A long continuous, unbroken strand of fiber extruded from a spinneret in the form of a monofilament. Most manufactured fibers such as nylon, polyester, rayon, and acetate are made in continuous filament form.
Converter A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.
Converter A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.
Corduroy A fabric, usually made of cotton, utilizing a cut-pile weave construction. Extra sets of filling yarns are woven into the fabric to form ridges of yarn on the surface. The ridges are built so that clear lines can be seen when the pile is cut
Core Yarn A yarn in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another fiber that serves as a core. Core yarns are often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber, and the outer wrapped fiber is a textured manufactured fiber such as polyester or nylon.
Core-Spun Yarns Consist of a filament base yarn, with an exterior wrapping of loose fiber which has not been twisted into a yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with a cotton outer layer in order to provide the strength and resiliency of polyester, along with the moisture-absorbent aesthetics and dye affinity of cotton. Sewing thread as well as household and apparel fabrics are made from these yarns.
Cotton A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2 inches long. The longest staple fibers, longer than 1 1/2 inch, including the Pima and Egyptian varieties, produce the highest quality cotton fabrics.
Count of Cloth The number of warp ends and picks per inch in a woven fabric. If a cloth is 68 X 72, it means there are 68 ends and 72 picks per inch in a woven fabric. A cloth that has the same number of ends and picks per inch in woven goods is called a square cloth. 80-square percale, for example, has 80 warp ends and 80 picks per inch.
Course The rows of loops or stitches running across a knitted fabric. Corresponds to the weft or filling in woven goods.
Crabbing A treatment used to set the cloth and yarn twists permanently in woolens and worsted goods.
Crease Resistant Finish Also referred to as CRF. Finishes used on fabrics that make them resistant to wrinkling and creasing, such as synthetic resin type finishes like durable press. Today some fabrics are made highly resistant to wrinkling through fiber blending and construction.
Crease Retention The ability of a cloth to hold or pleat or a crease, which has been intentionally created, through the use of a heat treatment. Heat setting of thermoplastic fibers causes creases to be permanently set.
Crepe-back Satin A satin fabric in which highly twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric, the fabric is called satin-back crepe.
Crinoline A lightweight, plain weave, stiffened fabric with a low yarn count (few yarns to the inch in each direction).
Crocking The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric. Crocking can be the result of lack of penetration of the dyeing agent, the use of incorrect dyes or dyeing procedures, or the lack of proper washing procedures and finishing treatments after the dyeing process.
Crocking The tendency of excess dyes to rub off. Napped and pile fabrics in deep colors are most likely to crock. Industry has set standards and tests to measure and prevent crocking.
Crotch Seam The short seam from the back of the pants fly to the inseam.
Cuff (lined) A cuff with interlining placed between the two pieces of body fabric.
Cuff (one-piece) A two-ply cuff formed by folding over a single piece of fabric, usually with a lining in between.
Cuff (topstitched) A cuff with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.
Cuff (two-piece) A cuff in which two identical pieces of fabric, usually with a lining in between, are joined by a seam along the edge, then turned and sometimes topstitched near the folded edges.
Cuprammonium A process of producing a type of regenerated rayon fiber. In this process, the wood pulp or cotton liners are dissolved in an ammoniac copper oxide solution. Bemberg rayon is a type of Cuprammonium rayon.
Curing A baking process with the use of resin finishes, applying heat under carefully controlled conditions to a fabric or the garment, which cause a reaction in the finishing agents and make them work. Crease-retention, water repellency, wrinkle resistance, and durable press are examples of finishes that are cured.
Cut-on-cross Fabric that is cut so that the warp runs horizontally across the garment piece.
Cut-on-fold Fabric that is doubled, then cut.

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